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BREAD FAULTS Bulletin No B101 - Bulk Fermentation

DEFECT - Volume - Too small, Possibly with flying top

CAUSE

  • Short of proof
  • Overmature dough
  • Tight dough
  • Green dough caused by low dough temperature
  • Weak flour
  • Short of sugar or malt, sometimes a pinkish tinge can be seen in the crumb
  • Too much pressure on moulding board
  • Too much salt

DEFECT - Volume - Too Large

CAUSE

  • Overproof

DEFECT - Crust Colour - Pale

CAUSE

  • Cool oven
  • Short of sugar or malt
  • Overmature dough
  • Heavy moulding

DEFECT - Crust Colour - High

CAUSE

  • Hot oven
  • Green dough
  • Too much sugar or malt
  • Too much salt

DEFECT - Crust - Flying top

CAUSE

  • Short tin proof

DEFECT - Crust Texture - Torn and ragged

CAUSE

  • Overmature dough
  • Heavy moulding

DEFECT - Crust Texture - Shiny

CAUSE

  • Green dough

DEFECT - Loaf Form - Too bold, excessively rounded corners

CAUSE

  • Excessive maturity
  • Tight dough
  • Short tin proof

DEFECT - Loaf Form - Lack of boldness, flat top, sharp corners

CAUSE

  • Slack dough
  • Green dough
  • Excessive proof

DEFECT - Loaf Form - Sharp ragged break

CAUSE

  • Tight dough
  • Green dough

DEFECT - Crumb - Doughy

CAUSE

  • Underbaking
  • Excessive malt
  • Flour made from sprouted wheat

DEFECT - Crumb - Dry

CAUSE

  • Overbaking
  • Lack of dough conditioners

DEFECT - Crumb Texture - Coarse and open

CAUSE

  • Overproof
  • Too much yeast
  • Green dough
  • Slack dough
  • Cool oven - causing excessive gassing after loaf has set

DEFECT - Crumb Texture - Irregular cores and streaks

CAUSE

  • Too much moulding pressure
  • Excessive skinning of dough pieces
  • Overmature dough

DEFECT - Crumb Texture - Tight Crumb

CAUSE

  • Underproof
  • Shortage fat and emulsifier
  • Tight dough

DEFECT - Crumb Colour - Greyish

CAUSE

  • Overmature dough
  • Bran in flour

DEFECT - Crumb Colour - Yellowish

CAUSE

  • Green dough
  • Wheat type

DEFECT - Aroma - Acid

CAUSE

  • Hot dough
  • Overmature

PINPOINTING FAULT

The tables of faults can give you some idea of where a fault may be occurring. Some faults may be inter-related yet others are independent.

In a bakery we usually do not find one glaring fault which is causing the problem seen. In general, the problem has come about through a series of small faults interacting together.

In order to solve a fault, it is best to work through the process, correcting faults as they occur. You will probably find the correction of just one fault may not solve the problem.

Begin with the formula, then at the work input, dough temperature etc through to final baking.

Referring to the notes will help isolate reasons for problems at each stage eg: an overmixed dough at mixing can result in a 'green' leaf occurring when using the MDD process.


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